Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council
A repository of financial data and institution characteristics collected by the Federal Reserve System

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Institution Groups       Other Institution Type Definitions

Institution Groups

Bank Holding Companies

A company that controls one or more U.S. banks. A bank holding company may also own another bank holding company, which in turn controls a bank. The company at the top of the ownership chain is called the top holder. The Board of Governors is responsible for regulating and supervising bank holding companies, even if the bank controlled by the holding company is under the primary supervision of a different federal agency (OCC or FDIC).

Commercial Banks

A financial institution that engages in various financial services, such as accepting deposits and making loans. Includes the following Institution Types:

Cooperative Banks

A state savings association that is organized and operates according to the laws of the state in which it is chartered or organized.

Covered Savings Associations

A federal savings association that makes a HOLA 5A election to operate as a covered savings association. Covered savings associations have the same rights and privileges as national banks and are treated like national banks, except for enumerated purposes. Covered savings associations retain federal savings association charters.

Credit Unions

A financial cooperative association organized for the purpose of promoting thrift among its members and creating a source of credit for provident or productive purposes. Credit unions can have federal, state, or corporate affiliations. Includes the following Institution Types:

  • Federal Credit Union
  • State Credit Union

Edge/Agreement Corporations

An Edge corporation is chartered by the Federal Reserve Board to engage in international banking and financial operations and can be broken into domestic branches, banking institutions, or investment institutions. Likewise,an Agreement corporation is chartered by a state to engage in international banking; so named because the corporation enters into an agreement with the Federal Reserve Board that will limit its activities to those permitted. Includes the following Institution Types:

  • Agreement Corporation - Banking
  • Agreement Corporation - Investment
  • Edge Corporation - Banking
  • Edge Corporation - Investment

Farm Credit System Institutions

Any Federally chartered financial institution that is supervised, examined, and regulated by the Farm Credit Administration and operates in accordance with the Farm Credit Act of 1971, as amended (12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq). All Farm Credit System institutions are federally-chartered instrumentalities of the United States. Includes the following Institution Type:

Financial Holding Companies

A financial entity engaged in a broad range of financial-related activities, created by the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 2000. These activities include: insurance underwriting, securities dealing and underwriting, financial and investment advisory services, merchant banking, issuing or selling securitized interests in bank-eligible assets, and generally engaging in any non-banking activity authorized by the Bank Holding Company Act. The Federal Reserve Board is responsible for supervising the financial condition and activities of financial holding companies. Similarly, any non-bank commercial company that is predominantly engaged in financial activities, earning 85% or more of its gross revenues from financial services, may choose to become a financial holding company. These companies are required to sell any non-financial (commercial) businesses within ten years. Includes the following Institution Types:

  • Financial Holding Company - Domestic
  • Financial Holding Company - Foreign
  • Intermediate Holding Company

Industrial Banks

A limited service financial institution that raises funds by selling certificates, called "investment shares," and by accepting deposits. Often called Morris Plan banks or industrial loan companies. Industrial banks are distinguished from commercial loan companies because industrial banks accept deposits in addition to making consumer and commercial loans. Industrial banks differ from commercial banks because some do not offer demand deposit (checking) accounts. Industrial banks are FDIC-supervised financial institutions and are currently chartered in seven states (California, Colorado, Hawaii, Indiana, Minnesota, Nevada and Utah). This group includes the following Institution Type:

Insurance Company Brokers/Agents/Underwriters

A company licensed to sell insurance products or to underwrite or reinsure insurance products either for coverage of third parties or for the self-insurance programs of a bank holding company, savings and loan holding company, and their affiliates. This group includes the following Institution Types:

Intermediate Holding Companies

A company established or designated by a foreign banking organization as its U.S. intermediate holding company under subpart O of the Federal Reserve Board’s Regulation YY (12 CFR part 252).

Non-Depository Trust Companies

Accepts and executes trusts, but does not issue currency. Can either be Federal Reserve members or Non-Members. This group includes the following Institution Types:

  • Non-deposit Trust Company - Member
  • Non-deposit Trust Company - Non-Member

Other Companies

Companies not specifically listed, but in which there is regulatory interest, that are not authorized to accept deposits. This group includes the following Institution Types:

Savings and Loan Associations

A financial institution that accepts deposits primarily from individuals, and channels its funds primarily into residential mortgage loans.

Savings and Loan Holding Companies

A company that directly or indirectly controls a savings association or that controls another savings and loan holding company. This excludes any company that is also a bank holding company.

Savings Banks

A financial institution organized to accept savings deposits and pay interest on those savings deposits. Savings banks can have state or federal affiliations (for example, state savings banks and federal savings banks). Includes the following Institution Types:

  • Federal Savings Bank
  • State Savings Bank

Securities Brokers/Dealers/Underwriters

Entities primarily engaged in acting as agents (i.e., brokers/dealers) between buyers and sellers in buying or selling securities on a commission or transaction fee basis. Includes the following Institution Type:

  • Securities Broker/Dealer

U.S. Branches and Agencies of Foreign Banking Organizations

Entities contained within and controlled by a foreign banking organization. Includes the following Institution Types:

Other Institution Type Definitions

Domestic Branch of a Domestic Bank

A branch office of a commercial bank, both of which are physically located in the United States.

Domestic Entity Other

Institutions that are physically located in the United States, which engage in banking activities, usually in connection with the business of banking in the United States.

Data Processing Servicer

Entities primarily engaged in providing infrastructure for hosting or data processing services. These establishments may provide specialized hosting activities, such as web hosting, streaming services or application hosting, provide application service provisioning, or may provide general time-share mainframe facilities to clients. Data processing establishments provide complete processing and specialized reports from data supplied by clients or provide automated data processing and data entry services.

Finance Company

A financial intermediary that makes loans to individuals or businesses.

Foreign Bank

An organization that is organized under the laws of a foreign country and that engages directly in the business of banking outside the United States.

Foreign Banking Organization (FBO)

A foreign bank that operates a branch, agency or commercial lending company subsidiary in the United States, controls a bank organized under U.S. law, or controls an Edge or agreement corporation, and any company of which a foreign bank is a subsidiary.

Foreign Banking Organization as a BHC

A foreign banking organization that also acts as a bank holding company and is thus supervised by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve.

Foreign Branch of a U.S. Bank

A branch that resides outside of the United States, but has a parent that is located in the United States.

Foreign Entity Other

Institutions that engage in banking activities, usually in connection with the business of banking, in foreign countries where such institutions are organized or operating.

Insured Branch of an FBO (Federal and State)

A branch that accepts retail deposits which are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

Investment Bank/Company

Acts as an underwriter or agent that serves as intermediary between the issuer of securities and the investing public.

National Bank

A commercial bank whose charter is approved by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) rather than by a state banking agency. National banks are required to be members of the Federal Reserve System and belong to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

Non-Member Banks

Commercial banks that are state-chartered and NOT members of the Federal Reserve System. Include all insured commercial banks and industrial banks.

State Member Banks

Include all commercial banks that are state-chartered and members of the Federal Reserve System.


An organization that primarily accepts savings account deposits and invests most of the proceeds in mortgages. Savings banks, savings and loan associations, and credit unions are examples of thrift institutions.

Uninsured Agency of a FBO (Federal and State)

An uninsured agency does not accept retail deposits and needs not apply for federal deposit insurance.

Uninsured Branch of a FBO (Federal and State)

A branch that does not accept retail deposits and needs not apply for federal deposit insurance.