Definitions of Banking Terms
The process of buying or acquiring some asset or an entire
This consists of the primary banking activity of an institution. For example,
the primary activity of state member banks, non-member banks, and national
banks (which are all commercial banks) is Commercial Banking.
As of Date
This represents a report date or transaction date.
Bank Insurance Fund (BIF) see Insurance
The fund that provides deposit insurance for commercial banks. It is
administered by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC).
Bank Holding Companies Performance Report (BHCPR)
An analytical tool produced by the Federal Reserve System for supervisory
purposes, including on-site examinations and inspections, off-site surveillance
and monitoring, and analyses performed in connection with applications filed
with the Federal Reserve regarding mergers, acquisitions, and other matters.
The BHCPRs are designed to assist analysts and examiners in determining a bank
holding companyís financial condition and performance based on financial
statements, comparative ratios, trend analyses, and percentile ranks relative
to its peers.
A search option that provides a comprehensive list of all branches belonging to an institution. Not all banks will have branches therefore, the option will only be available to those that do.
An office of an institution that is physically separated from its home office,
but that offers the same kinds of deposit taking, loan and other services
conducted at the home office.
Charter (Chartering Authority)
A state or federal agency that grants charters to new depository institutions.
For state chartered institutions, the chartering authority is usually the state
banking department; for national banks, it is the OCC; and for federal savings
institutions, it is the Office of Thrift Supervision.
When an institution's charter is closed and there is no successor institution.
Failed Bank (failure)
The closing of a financial institution by its chartering authority, which
rescinds the institutionís charter and revokes its ability to conduct business
because the institution is insolvent, critically undercapitalized, or unable to
meet deposit outflows.
FDIC Certificate Number
A unique number assigned by the FDIC used to identify institutions and for the
issuance of insurance certificates.
Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC)
Interagency body composed of representatives from the five regulatory agencies
responsible for U.S. depository institutions.
The headquarters of the entity, i.e., the head office of a branch, agency, or
other non-independent facility.
Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) Respondents
Certain financial institutions, including banks, savings associations, credit
unions, and other mortgage lending institutions that provide public loan data
in accordance with the Home Mortgage Discloser Act, which was enacted by
Congress in 1975.
Provides detailed characteristic information about an institution. Characteristic information includes attributes such as Institution type, Location, and Primary Federal Regulator and Structure information such as Organization Hierarchy, Institutions Acquired, Institution History, and Branch Locator.
These are institutions that were acquired by other institutions.
A description of an institution's characteristic and structure information over time.
A classification describing the activities of the institution. NIC also
provides a glossary of Institution Types.
- Bank Insurance Fund (BIF) is the insurance fund for insured banks.
- Savings Association Insurance Fund (SAIF) is the insurance fund for insured
- BIF and SAIF are managed by the FDIC
The consolidation of two or more institutions into a single entity. Generally
the survivor is the institution that remains in business following the merger,
whereas the institution that ceases to exist is the non-survivor. There may be
more than one non-survivor for any given merger.
Mortgage Banking Company
Company that makes, acquires, or services loans or other extensions of credit
for the account of others.
Fund that pools money from its shareholders in stocks, bonds, government
securities, and short-term money market instruments.
National Information Center
The National Information Center (NIC) is a central data repository containing
information about all U.S. banking organizations and their domestic and foreign
affiliates, as well as information on foreign banking organizations located in
The ownership relationships of institutions. The institution may be the top tier or anywhere within the
The Parent Institution owns or controls another institution.
Purchase and Assumption
A Purchase and Assumption (P&A) is a transaction in which an institution
purchases assets and liabilities of another institution. This transaction
results in a major change to the seller's primary business. The seller's
charter may or may not continue.
Federal Banking Agencies that supervise banks and other financial institutions
depending on each institutionís specific charter or mission. The five federal
regulators are as follows:
- Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
- Federal Reserve System (FRS)
- National Credit Union Administration (NCUA)
- Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC)
- Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS)
This date generally corresponds to the last day of the report period.
Routing Transit Number (RTN)
The RTN is a bank identifier found on the bottom of checks. It is commonly
referred to as an ABA (American Bankers Association) number and is nine
numerical digits in length.
The RSSD ID is a unique identifier assigned to institutions by the Federal
Reserve. While the length of the RSSD ID varies by institution, it cannot
exceed 10 numerical digits.
Savings Association Insurance Fund (SAIF) see Insurance
The fund that provides deposit insurance for savings institutions. SAIF was
authorized by Congress in 1989 to take over the thrift deposit insurance role
held by the former Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (FSLIC). SAIF
is administered by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC).
When one entity (E1) transfers between 40 and 94 percent of its assets to one
or more newly formed entities (E2). Both entities continue to exist. E1 has not
failed, and government assistance is not involved.
- Current: institution that is open as of a specified date
- Non-Current: institution that is closed as of a specified date
- Current and Non-Current: all institutions that are open or haven been closed as
of a specified date
Top 50 BHCs
These are bank holding companies with the largest consolidated total assets and are ranked each quarter on a scale of 1 to 50. The list changes periodically and is often referred to as the "Official Top 50 List."
The highest entity in a multi-level organization.